2022 Jan 4;98(1):e51-e61.
doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012947. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Florence RiantCaroline RoosAgathe RoubertieCécile BarbanceJessica HadjadjStéphane AuvinGuillaume BailleMarion BeltramoneCécile BoulangerAlice CahnFlorina CataEmmanuel CheuretJean-Christophe CuvellierAntoine DefoGenevieve DemarquayAnne DonnetNicolas GaillardEvelyne MassardierNathalie GuySylvie Lamoureux Laurence Le MoignoChristian LucasDiana RatiuSylvain RedonCaroline Rey Christel Thauvin François VialletElisabeth Tournier-LasserveAnne Ducros


Background and objective: PRRT2 variants have been reported in a few cases of patients with hemiplegic migraine. To clarify the role of PRRT2 in familial hemiplegic migraine, we studied this gene in a large cohort of affected probands.

Methods: PRRT2 was analyzed in 860 probands with hemiplegic migraine, and PRRT2 variations were identified in 30 probands. Genotyping of relatives identified a total of 49 persons with variations whose clinical manifestations were detailed.

Results: PRRT2 variations were found in 12 of 163 probands who previously tested negative for CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and SCN1A variations and in 18 of 697 consecutive probands screened simultaneously on the 4 genes. In this second group, pathogenic variants were found in 105 individuals, mostly in ATP1A2 (42%), followed by CACNA1A (26%), PRRT2 (17%), and SCN1A (15%). The PRRT2 variations included 7 distinct variants, 5 of which have already been described in persons with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and 2 new variants. Eight probands had a deletion of the whole PRRT2 gene. Among the 49 patients with variations in PRRT2, 26 had pure hemiplegic migraine and 16 had hemiplegic migraine associated with another manifestation: epilepsy (8), learning disabilities (5), hypersomnia (4), or abnormal movement (3). Three patients had epilepsy without migraine: 2 had paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia without migraine, and 1 was asymptomatic.

Discussion: PRRT2 should be regarded as the fourth autosomal dominant gene for hemiplegic migraine and screened in any affected patient, together with the 3 other main genes. Further studies are needed to understand how the same loss-of-function PRRT2 variations can lead to a wide range of neurologic phenotypes, including paroxysmal movement disorder, epilepsy, learning disabilities, sleep disorder, and hemiplegic migraine.

Hemiplegic Migraine Associated With PRRT2 Variations: A Clinical and Genetic Study